Crown- A dental crown is an artificial cap placed on the tooth to protect it. Whenever a tooth is extensively damaged and cannot be restored by a filling, a dental crown or onlay will be more effective at restoring the lost tooth structure for the longer term.
Veneers- Veneers are thin shells of tooth-coloured material placed only on the front surface of the tooth.
Onlay- Dental Onlays are like crowns but they are more conservative of the remaining tooth structure.
Bridge- A dental bridge is made of 3 artificial teeth joined together. The ends are attached to healthy teeth, and the middle (the bridge) is used to replace a missing tooth after extraction. You can replace badly damaged or decayed teeth with a dental bridge.
You will get to know whether a filling is a suitable treatment for you in consultation with the dentist. A tooth may be so extensively damaged that a crown, root canal, or inlay/onlay might be more suitable so always get a dental checkup first before deciding on a treatment.